Monday, 12 September 2011


Climate zone map - the Pennines lie in zone 7 and 8 = rainfall/ cold.

Heather is a common feature.

Below shows High Cup Nick. North Pennines:

I have not visited here - on my list!

The Pennines have been carved from a series of geological structures whose overall form is that of a broad anticline whose axis extends in a north–south direction. The North Pennines are coincident with the Alston Block, whilst the Yorkshire Dales are coincident with the Askrigg Block. In the south the Peak District is essentially a flat-topped dome. Each of these structures consists of Carboniferous Limestone overlain with Millstone Grit. The limestone is exposed at the surface to the north of the range, in the North Pennines AONB, and to the south in the Derbyshire Peak District. In the Yorkshire Dales this limestone exposure has led to the formation of large underground cave systems and watercourses, known as "gills" and "pots" in the Yorkshire dialect. These caves, or "potholes", are more prevalent on the eastern side and are amongst the largest in England; notable examples are the chasms of Gaping Gill, which is over 350 ft (107 m) deep, and Rowten Pot, which is 365 ft (111 m) deep. Erosion of the limestone has also led to some unusual geological formations in the region, such as the limestone pavements of the Yorkshire Pennines. Between the northern and southern areas of exposed limestone (between Skipton and the Peak District) lies a narrow belt of exposed gritstone. Here, the shales and sandstones of the Millstone Grit form high hills occupied by a moorland of bracken, peat, heather and coarse grasses,[15] with the higher ground being uncultivable and barely fit for pastures.

The landscape of the Pennines is characterised by upland areas of high moorland indented by more fertile river valleys.


High Cup Nick is a classic U-shaped valley high on the western flanks of the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB).

A deep chasm on the Pennine fellside, this famous nick, a dramatic geological formation at the top of High Cup Gill is part of the well-known Whin Sill, and overlooks the best glaciated valley in Northern England. Here you can see the grey-blue dolerite crags which also form High Force and Cauldron Snout.

High Cup Nick is on the Pennine Way and can be reached from Cow Green Reservoir on the border of Cumbria and County Durham, or Dufton in the Eden Valley.

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